All Posts by Megan Hoyt

why we use omega fatty acids

The benefits of Omega Fatty Acids

Healthy Fats

This may be the one of few articles where you’ll hear about how healthy fat is for you. Our body requires certain fats that it cannot create itself. These certain fats are commonly known as omega fatty acids and they are quite vital to our diet. Our bodies use omega fatty acids in a few different ways, the most important being the production of cell membranes, as well as helping to reduce inflammation, blood clots and they also help to keep our cell growth at a healthy level.

Understanding fatty acids

Our bodies use omega fatty acids that are separated in two categories that they fall into, saturated fats (Coconut oil, butter, cheese, palm oil) whose chemical structure contains one or more bonds are vital for immune health. Unsaturated fats (Fish, vegetables, canola, corn, peanut oil) who have two more chemical bonds that play a role in reducing high blood cholesterol.

The main omega fatty acids we call essential fatty acids (EFA) and these are the fats that the body cannot produce itself and why you should be adding a supplement with these or focusing on more foods that are rich in EFAs. According the World health Organization “one should have at least two portions of oily fish per week – salmon, sardines, herring, mackerel, swordfish, pollock, etc. – rich in the omega-3s EPA and DHA. Also, green leafy vegetables including spinach and kale, flaxseed oil, chia seed oil, walnut oil, avocados are sources of omega-3 fatty acids.” And since we know getting this in your diet can be a hassle that’s why we have our Attention formula and even our complete multiple formula made just for combating low EFA in the body.

Benefits of Omega 3 6 9 fatty acid supplements

Knowing your EFAs and where to get them from is important as is seeing all the benefits they do for our bodies.

• Helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels

• Increases Circulation

• Helps keep skin show less signs of aging

• Keeps the brain functioning at a healthy level

• Helps regulate mood  

Why it is Important to be Getting the Proper EFAs

It’s important at all points in life to be getting enough EFAs, in infants it plays a vital role in eye and brain development. In school it is important for helping with attention problems behavioral problems. With teenagers a lack of EFAs has been shown to play a part in mood changes and depression. Even with adults a EFA deficiency can be a contributing factor to being more susceptible towards anger and irritation.  Our bodies use omega fatty acids in more ways than we are aware.

Start your own Supplement Line Today

There are plenty of reasons to go liquid for your supplements, if you are looking to start making more of an impact with your products check out our wholesale page where you can get in on the liquid supplement train.

What Vitamin B12 does

The Benefits of Vitamin B12

What Vitamin B does for you

Being a water soluble vitamin, you can find b12 in many foods. What Vitamin B12 does that is so vital to the human body is helping to maintain a proper red blood cell formation. It is also an excellent source of support for neurological functions. B12 is essential for our bodies cellular energy production. It is found in high protein food such as fish, meat and dairy. Often there is very little B12 to be found in plant-based foods, therefore adding a b12 supplement to one’s diet if they are vegetarian or vegan can be a necessity.

Understanding Vitamin B12 Deficiency 

Not having enough B12 can cause one to start feeling weak, fatigued, loss of weight and even loss of appetite. This is seen quite often with vegetarians and even the elderly, most of the time it is due to the fact they are not getting enough of the vitamin from any meaty proteins. Some of the biggest noticeable signs of being B12 deficient is weakness and fatigue, this happens due to the body not having enough B12 to bolster its red blood cells count, with a low red blood cell count less oxygen is being transported through the body and gives the feeling of fatigue and weakness. What Vitamin B12 does is helps get more oxygen to the body and can decrease or eliminate the fatigued feeling.

Another common deficiency that can be seen with low B12 in the body is mood changes, In the study “Vitamin B12 for Cognition” researchers looked into “ association between neuropsychiatric disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency” what they found was more low levels of B12 had a higher likelihood to display mood and brain disorders.  


What Vitamin B12 does to your diet when you add a supplement, you also make it more difficult for heart and blood vessel diseases to take root. B12 also helps to control homocysteine in the blood, an amino acid, high levels of homocysteine can lead to heart disease. By making sure you are getting enough B12 you are taking preventive measures to stop it before it has a chance to take hold.

Even if you are not B12 deficient, there is little to no evidence that it can be over consumed, so if you feel less energetic during the middle of day or are experiencing random mood swings, adding a B12 vitamin right be the next move to start getting ahead of these pesky symptoms. Along with keeping your nerve and blood cells healthy the benefits of a B12 supplement help many aspects of healthy body functions.

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why you should be taking an l-carnosine supplement

Why You Should be using a L-Carnosine Supplement

There are many important building blocks that our body needs to stay healthy, one that doesn’t get a lot of air time today is L-Carnosine. L-Carnosine is a building block of protein that our body naturally produces. It aids in our muscle strength and it is also found in the brain and heart. Basically Carnosine keeps our body running smooth for muscle development in areas such as our hearts, brain and even the liver. We get it by having a healthy dose of meats, but if you’re not getting enough through normal diet, taking a supplement might just be that extra kick your body needs to stay healthy. We’re going to breakdown why you should be using an L-Carnosine supplement.

The Benefits

Another reason you should be using an L-Carnosine, supplement is your body is able to take in more oxygen, it can also reduce the damage that is caused from having a high sugar diet. Sugars bind with the protein L-Carnosine and cause less damage as the protein takes out some of the damaging aspects of too much sugar. Another great reason to include L-Carnosine into your diet is that it has superb antioxidant properties, helping to greatly eliminate those pesky free radicals.

why you should be taking a L-Carnosine Supplement

It is especially important to be using an L-Carnosine supplement if you are a strict vegetarian, not having meat in your diet drastically reduces the levels of L-Carnosine in your body and effects your brain and muscles thus resulting in feeling fatigued and tired all time.

There has been evidence “In animal studies, administration of high doses of carnosine reduced oxidative damage in the brain and blood during periods of high stress. In a study using rats made salt-sensitive with stress hormones, intravenous administration of carnosine decreased their blood pressure and reduced sympathetic nervous system activity in their kidneys” Showing us more proof that keeping a good dose of L-Carnosine can also help reduce toxic effects on the brain.

Another important factor to why you should be using an L-Carnosine supplement in your diet is that it can reduce the effects of aging. In the study Carnosine and Related Peptides: Therapeutic Potential in Age-Related Disorders “Carnosine is thought to counteract several mechanisms associated to aging process due to its presumable biochemical properties, including antioxidant, bivalent metal ion chelating, muscular proton buffering, anti cross-linking, and reactive carbonyl scavenger activities.” 

L-carnosine has a vast amount of benefits, it aids in muscle health and almost every other organ. Adding an L-Carnosine supplement to your diet is the next step. Another reason why you should be using an L-Carnosine supplement.

If you’re interested in selling a Liquid supplement with L-Carnosine, fill out a contact form or call us today at 888-866-5755


Jackson MC,Kucera CM,Lenney JF (1991). Purification and properties of human serum carnosinase. Clin Chim Acta, 196:193-205.

Kish SJ,Perry TL,Hansen S (1979). Regional distribution of homocarnosine, homocarnosine-carnosine synthetase and homocarnosinase in human brain. J Neurochem, 32:1629-36.

Combating Joint Pain

Combating Joint Pain

Achy joints? Stoved up? We’ve all been there, waking up the next day after a pick-up game to realize you are not as young as you once were. The sore knee, hip or really any joint that can get sore being sore feeling. Is this just a process of aging or is it something different? Here we breakdown one of the best kept secrets to combating joint pain.

Glucosamine and Chondroitin

We are all born with the ability to produce Glucosamine (A substance that occurs naturally in the body and is one of the building blocks of cartilage, the connective tissue that cushions the ends of bones within the joints.) and chondroitin (A substance found in the cartilage around joints that helps cartilage retain water). Unfortunately, as we get older the production of these compounds tails off. In laymen’s terms Glucosamine and Chondroitin are the cushion for our joints. As we start to lose production of these with age joint pain and discomfort naturally follow, due to having less cushion. After this we start to experience joint pain from physical exertion or even just day to day activity.

Our Glucosamine supplements contain Glucosamine and Chondroitin as well as a healthy dose of MSM. With the declining natural production of these compounds as you age, it only makes sense to add them to your diet in supplement form. If you have sore joints, then you may need an extra strength liquid glucosamine supplement with MSM and chondroitin. Studies have shown that adding both Glucosamine and Chondroitin to your diet may help over time. In a study Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis researchers noted that “Exploratory analyses suggest that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate may be effective in the subgroup of patients with moderate-to-severe knee pain.” The best way to combat joint pain is by adding to your bodies production of these, this has shown the reduction pain over time.


While Glucosamine and Chondroitin supplements cannot guarantee a complete return to normal joint function or pain relief, most studies have concluded that the best way to combat joint pain is with glucosamine and Chondroitin. They have been shown to give a drop in pain for the joints in the knee, hip and spine. This biggest take away of the benefits for taking Glucosamine and Chondroitin reducing pain “is usually modest (about 8 to 10 percent improvement) and it works slowly (up to 3 months).” Glucosamine and Chondroitin work on combating pain, and People who use glucosamine sulfate orally to treat a painful condition caused by the inflammation, breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage have shown improvements.

go non GMO

Why we go Non GMO

Let’s start with understanding what a GMO is then you can begin to understand why we go non GMO. A GMO is a genetically modified organism. These organisms have had their genetic makeup artificially modified to become something new, that hasn’t happed in nature yet. By modifying organisms we are able to create different combinations of plants. Most of these have come about by trying to create plant life that can withstand certain herbicides or insecticides.

One of the biggest reasons we make an extra effort to go non Gmos is due to the fact that these organisms are often built to withstand Roundup. While roundup has shown to have no side effects on humans or other mammals it has shown to have effects on soil health. If we can’t keep using the soil for farming due to poor soil then we are in for a lot more trouble. By firming believing in in a healthy future for your body and the earth we make sure to go above in making sure that we do not use these GMOs until there has been more research done and positive steps are taken to ensuring they have no long term side effects.

When it comes to GMOs there are still health concerns by healthcare professionals due to the fact that there is no independent research. Not having all the information is a gamble on individuals health. This is why we use non GMOs, so the client knows exactly what they’re putting into their bodies to ensure a more healthy and safe delivery method for the supplements they may be needing.

go non GMO

With there being questions of potential alterations to the human genome with GMOs we have taken a wide berth from GMOs. We do this for the fact that they are no independent long term studies of the effects of GMOs. Our goal is to improve lives not potentially jeopardize them. To continue to have a comprehensive line of natural liquid vitamins and liquid supplements available we intend to do just that, stay natural and healthy.

By taking the extra steps to ensure that all of our products we put into our supplements have not been modified we can give accurate, safe and predictable outcomes. Knowing what goes into the product hasn’t been altered makes for safer consumption. By using GMOs you eliminate the accuracy of what the supplements can do because we are unable to predict the long term effects of using products that have been generically modified. So when you are looking to have your product stand out in the market, make sure the clients know you supplements are non GMO.

Understadning Phytoceramides

What do Phytoceramides Do For Our Bodies?

What are phytoceramides?

There are a lot of anti-aging products out there today and Phytoceramide supplements have been around a while, and some of the biggest claims you hear today are that they are the anti-aging breakthrough you’ve been looking for. So this begs the question, what do phytoceramides do for our bodies? In laymen’s terms, phytoceramides are a natural supplement that have deep skin penetrating components that lock in moisture. This helps prevent aging skin. We derive these from animal sources but are also obtained through rice, sweet potatoes and wheat.

How do Phytoceramides really work?

In many studies researchers have concluded that phytoceramides work as a stimulant for collagen. (Collagen has shown to aid in helping maintain our skin elasticity.) Another benefit that we get from phytoceramides is an effective replacement for lipids. (The body uses Lipids for providing energy to producing hormones.) Another plus researchers have seen that phytoceramides do for our bodies is that they help strengthen the skin barrier that fights against common inflammation, infections and even aids in extra protection against sun damage on the skin. This all further shows what phytoceramides do for our bodies, namely skin and also, most importantly, they lock in moisture and help keep your skin hydrated.

Benefits of Phytoceramides

After gaining an understanding of what Phytoceramides do for our bodies, it is easier to see how they affect the body overall. Stimulating collagen, Phytoceramides are a key component for locking moisture in our skin. This also helps with the reduction of wrinkles by aiding in keeping skin healthier. The more moisture we retain the more youthful and healthy skin will continue to appear. By keeping your skin healthier and more hydrated you also have a higher chance of reducing redness and other blemishes, helping curate healthier skin and preventing future damage.

Playing into the benefits of Phytoceramides, we also use Biotin in our skin care products that also play a big role in aiding healthy skin. Biotion is also a “Health optimizer, Biotin synthesizes a large number of vital components that are important in maintaining optimal health for our body.” essentially killing tow birds with one stone when it comes to skin and hair care.

Phytoceramides: topical vs. oral

There are plenty of Phytoceramides found in topical applications that claim the same benefits as an oral application, however a topical approach to skin care is only treating the outside. When you treat your skin from the inside out you start to see more results. This is due to the fact that when absorbed in the body Phytoceramides can penetrate all four layers of skin. With liquid form supplements to treat skin the Phytoceramides get absorbed more effectively and redistributed to the body.

In conclusion

We’ve seen just what exactly Phytoceramides do for our bodies, and there are many benefits of using Phytoceramide supplements, everything from locking in moisture in the skin, helping with redness, blemishes and keeping skin youthful. The best part? We already have the product that you were just about to go searching for. Our Hair skin and Nails supplement is the perfect blend of Phytoceramides to help aid in skin protection.

How Biotin Benefits the Body

How Biotin Benefits the Body

When talking about Biotin and how it can benefit the body it is best to begin by looking into where Biotin comes from. B vitamins come in many forms, one namely being Biotin and is a key nutrient that is commonly found in beef, eggs, salmon and pork. Biotin plays an important role in speeding up how the body metabolizes glucose, amino acids and other fatty acids. Essentially, they create a catalyst in the body for us to get energy from our foods. This gives us an improved metabolism, skin health and helps with weight loss and maintenance.

Often times Biotin deficiency isn’t very noticeable, nor is it always a cause for concern. Biotin deficiency signs often include thinning hair, and are often times mistaken as signs of aging. Brittle nails, nails that tear or break super easy. We’ve therefore created the perfect supplement to combat these deficiencies individuals may experience. Biotin plays an important role in our Skin Rescue & Renew supplement, created exactly for combating hair thinning, brittle nails and as an extra bonus we’ve also added phytoceramides (which help with the prevention of moisture loss benefiting an individual’s overall skin health).

Often times there is a preconceived notion that you treat outside ailments from the outside by treating the area with topical products. Our Skin Rescue & Renew promotes healthy skin, hair thinning reduction and stronger nails from the inside by providing your body with the nutrients it needs to strengthen these areas. Lacking the proper supplements and vitamins is a common factor in these symptoms.

Other Findings

In a case study “Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin” the effects of biotin were assessed for 6-14 months in a group of women with brittle and splitting nails. Over the course of the study nail thickness increased upwards of 25%. After 4-5 months they also reported having firmer nails.

A similar study went to test hair health and found that while on a 3-5 mg a day of biotin after 4 months hair health had improved. “The evidence supporting the use of biotin supplements to support skin health is equally limited to a small number of case reports…showing that 100 mcg to 10 mg/day resulted in dramatic improvements in rash or dermatitis as well as alopecia.”

How Biotin Benefits the Body

Knowing all the areas Biotin plays an important role helps us understand why we use it and why we need it in our diet.

  • It boosts our metabolism by extracting energy from our foods and is vital for our body to continue to work properly.
  • Biotin is one of the essential components our body uses to regulate healthy skin and hair and nails.
  • Health optimizer, Biotin synthesizes a large number of vital components that are important in maintaining optimal health for our body.

Looking at how our body uses Biotin we are able to see how it impacts many aspects of our life. If you’re looking for that extra boost in glowing radiating skin, stronger nails and healthier hair Our Skin Rescue & Renew packs the ultimate punch.


therapeutic benefits of cbd

Therapeutic Benefits of CBD

therapeutic benefits of CBD

With a huge surge in CBD popularity we are also seeing a rise in potential benefits from CBD. One of the more interesting ones being the psychoactive effects of THC are subverted, and the focus is primarily on the healing properties.  According to a study on the Therapeutic benefits of CBD, CBD has been shown to have beneficial properties towards anxiolytic (used to reduce anxiety) and neuro protective properties (preservation of neuron structures and functions).

Shown in the article, researchers set out to highlight advancements in clinical uses of CBD in these areas to show the therapeutic benefits of CBD.

How CBD Can Reduce Anxiolytic Properties

Cannabis has shown to have a rather large number of chemical compounds, over 100 that are more closely related to CBD.  Another interesting bonus found about CBD is that “CBD both blocked and potentiated the effects of Δ9-THC” experiments shed light on how when given a control group large doses THC, anxiety and psychotic symptoms were triggered and got steadily worse then were “attenuated when CBD was administered”. CBD not only negated the effect of the psychoactive THC properties but it continued to help get anxiety under control.

This not only showed us that CBD can reduce the effects of THC but it has opened the door to understanding how CBD could have therapeutic benefits towards anxiolytic properties. Keep one’s anxiety under control.

To pinpoint the potential anxiolytic effects of CBD  researchers did a controlled study where they had volunteers use the Simulated Public Speaking Test (SPST). Volunteers talk in front of a camera where they record their levels of anxiety and its physiological concomitants (what naturally accompanies something). Once they had marked their “base line” they administered THC to spike their levels to see if CDB, when added would help bring them down to their base or better.

therapeutic benefits of CBD

“Through this test, the effects of CBD (300 mg) were compared with those produced by two anxiolytic compounds, ipsapirone (5 mg) and diazepam (10 mg), in a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure. The findings demonstrated that CBD and the two other anxiolytic compounds all attenuated anxiety induced by the SPST.”

There was a noticeable reduction in heart rate and blood pressure after administering CBD during this test further showed that CBD has these anxiolytic properties. THC psychoactive effects were brought down as well as their anxiolytic levels.

How The Brain Reacts To CBD

When taking images of the brain after being administered CBD, researches results found that “an increase in the left parahippocampal gyrus activity and a decrease in left amigdala-hippocampus complex, extending to the left posterior cingulate cortex and the hypothalamus 4 This brain activity pattern associated with the use of CBD was regarded as compatible with a central anxiolytic effect in these areas.” After reviewing the images they concluded that the areas of our brain that deal with anxiety were showing significantly lower levels of anxiety than before,

What really stuck out as the most impressive find in this whole case study was that CBD was shown to lower measures of anxiety without the sedation of the subject. Slowing down activity in the hippocampus, parahippocampal and left temporal gyrus were all a factor in reducing anxiety in subjects.

In Conclusion

The therapeutic benefits of CBD when delivered to humans doesn’t produce the psychoactive effects commonly associated with THC. THC itself has been shown to increase anxiolytic, antiepileptic, and antipsychotic properties but when CBD isolated from cannabis shows that it can in fact reduce anxiolytic, antiepileptic, and antipsychotic properties. Administering CDB can help reduce these anxiolytic effects.

Case Study A­rticle:

health benefits of Aloe Vera

Health Benefits of Aloe Vera

health benefits of Aloe Vera

Across the world, Aloe Vera is used for all kinds of home remedies and natural treatment of various symptoms.  In the western world, Aloe Vera has found widespread use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Currently, the manufacture of Aloe Vera products is one of the largest botanical sectors in the world and the health benefits of Aloe Vera are extensive.

Nutritional Value of Aloe Vera

Researchers have found nutritional value associated with consuming Aloe Vera. Aloe Vera contains more than 75 active components including vitamins, minerals, saccharides, amino acids, and salicylic acids. These elements are vital to the human body. Vitamins and minerals are essential for the growth and proper functioning of the body.  Aloe Vera contains vitamins A, C, and E. These nutrients are antioxidants, meaning they protect the body against free radicals that can lead to various health problems. Vitamin C supports heart health and improves the immune system. Aloe Vera gel also has vitamin B-12 and folate. Additionally, the gel hosts several minerals such as potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, and chromium.  All of these contribute to the health benefits of aloe vera.

Regulation of Naturally Occurring Inflammation

Aloe Vera contains compounds such as salicylic acid, C-glucosyl chromone and bradykinase, which have been known to have a positive effect on the body’s ability to fight inflammation . Consuming Aloe Vera also slows the production of acid in the body, which may support your body in fighting normal levels of inflammation. Studies have also suggested that drinking or eating Aloe Vera supplements can support oral health due to its antimicrobial and antibacterial properties.

Supports Digestive Health 

One of the health benefits aloe vera is that it can help in regulating your digestive tract. The outer parts of the plant contain elements known as anthraquinones, which support your body’s natural digestive process.  Taking aloe vera based supplements is a great way to ensure your body can capitalize on these health benefits.

Why Retailers should Sell Aloe Vera Products

Aloe Vera is among the few plants with both medicinal and cosmetic uses. As such, its products have an extensive market across the world. Some of its major markets include the USA, Australia, and the whole of Europe. Researchers expect the market demand across the globe to increase due to the rise of health-conscious customers and elevating hygiene standards. The working population is also expanding, and people are expected to make a gradual shift to natural products. Moreover, the world is currently experiencing a change in lifestyle that has fueled the awareness of healthy living to reduce lifestyle diseases. These factors are among other reasons that are fueling the demand for Aloe Vera.

Retailers should know that people have realized the health benefits of aloe vera, including its healing and moisturizing propertie. Clients are now looking for the most accessible place to find Aloe Vera products. Matsun Nutrition is your go to supplier of all types of supplements, including those with a base of aloe vera.  Due to the health benefits of aloe vera, many of our standard formulas as well as privately manufactured formulas include aloe vera.  To get started on selling your own supplements visit our contact page or call now at (888) 866-5755.

Benefits of Hemp oil

Benefits of Hemp Oil

Benefits of Hemp oilHemp oil also referred to as hemp seed oil, is harvested from hemp seeds. It’s usually unrefined oil which is clear green in color with a nutty flavor. However, it’s entirely different from CBD oil which is extracted from the cannabis plant. Despite being an excellent source of high-quality nutrients, the world has turned a blind eye to the benefits of hemp oil. This is due to the partiality related to its association with Marijuana.

Although Hemp oil contains no THC (a psychoactive component in cannabis), it still poses a lot of concern to some people. The numerous benefits of hemp oil include improved skin health, enhancement of cognitive skills, healthy heart, among many others.

Let’s explore the benefits of hemp oil into fine details.

Nutritional Support in fighting day to day inflammation

The human body has an amazing immune system. However, pathogens can still attack it. As a result, the body gets inflamed, leading to pain.  Inflammation can commonly occur in response to diet, physical activity, and other factors. The  fatty acids and other nutrients found in hemp oil may help support your bodies immune system in fighting off day to day inflammation.

Supports Healthy Brain Function

One of the significant benefits of hemp oil is its ability to help maintain healthy brain function. The integral function of the brain depends on sufficient production of cannabinoid, it is known. The production of cannabinoid is activated by fatty acids omega -6 and -3. Omega-3 is vital due to its power in repairing damaged brain cells.  Promoting a healthy supply of fatty acids by using a hemp oil supplement may aid in . Hemp oil is among one of the few natural components needed to support the perfect balance of nutrition that supplements the brain’s need for cannabinoids.

Hemp Oil May Boost Digestive Health

Hemp seeds contain high fiber content – both soluble and insoluble which can be very beneficial to a healthy digestive tract.  Hemp oil also contains a small amount of protein that coincides with the one in our blood system. Protein is easily digestible and boosts thermogenesis process in the body. You just saw the numerous benefits of hemp oil and the benefits are yours to enjoy. Hemp oil is considered safe for most people’s consumption and shows to help promote a wide array of body functionality. However, when buying hemp oil, it is always important to consult with your physician.  

We Moved!

Matsun Nutrition Has Moved!


Matsun Nutrition has relocated to Mesquite, Nevada!  For over two decades, Matsun Nutrition has been at the forefront of bringing liquid vitamins and supplements to the world.  What started out as a small business endeavor in Southern California in 1992, has grown into one of the leading liquid vitamin manufacturers in the United States.  With this recent relocation, Matsun Nutrition has opened the door to continued growth and expansion within our private label and contract manufacturing programs.

Our new facility continues to meet or exceed all industry vitamin manufacturing standards, including NSF registration, FDA and GMP compliance.  And new staff members have seamlessly integrated with our experienced staff to continue providing the highest quality liquid nutritional products and customer service for our clients.  To learn more about Matsun Nutrition and our liquid vitamin and supplement capabilities, just fill out our contact form or visit our products and services webpages.